What is Basalt Fiber?
Basalt is a basalt rock. It is classified as an igneous rock that has been solidified by the cooling of magma and has a mottled structure containing 45% to 52% SiO2 (silicon dioxide).
Basalt fiber is a non-flammable natural material made by crushing the basalt, placing it in a melting furnace, melting it at a high temperature of 1500℃, and then injecting and spinning it. It has excellent fire resistance, acid resistance, alkali resistance, corrosion resistance, and chemical resistance, as well as high strength and high modulus of elasticity. By using Basalt fiber as a reinforcing material, a variety of composite materials can be made with excellent performance.
It is mainly used in construction applications such as reinforcing grids and rods, and it is also used as a substitute for glass fiber due to its alkali resistance, and in recent years, it has been attracting attention as an environmentally friendly material that takes into account the SDGs.
History of Basalt fiber
Basalt fiber was developed by the Moscow Institute of Glass and Plastics in 1954.
In the 1960s and 70s, the Ministry of Building Materials Industry of Ukraine established a special scientific research and production consortium for thermal and acoustic insulation materials.
The main task was to develop a production line for the manufacture of basalt fibers and their products.
The Scientific Research Institute of the Commonwealth of Independent States began the development and preparation of basalt fiber in 1972 and has developed more than 20 production processes for basalt fiber products. In 1985 they succeeded in the development and industrialization of continuous basalt fiber.
Basalt fiber is an excellent alternative to glass fiber
- In fiber drawing tests, the binding ability of Basalt fiber and epoxy polymer has been demonstrated to be higher than that of E-glass fiber, which increases strength when used in place of glass fiber.
- Glass fiber is susceptible to alkalinity, but Basalt fiber has excellent alkaline resistance.
- Its heat resistance stability is significantly better than that of glass fiber, allowing continuous use in the range of -260°C to 650°C.
- When glass fiber is incinerated, its melting temperature is lower than that of the incinerator, so it expands as it melts and sticks to the inside of the incinerator, and shrinks as it cools and hardens, damaging the incinerator. Basalt fiber does not damage the incinerator.
Basalt fiber is a completely eco-friendly material that is SDGs and carbon neutral.
- Basalt fiber is a natural material made from basalt that is crushed, melted in a melting furnace, injected and spun. 100% basalt is made from basalt, making it a completely eco-friendly material that is easily recyclable and environmentally friendly.
- Basalt fiber is made by melting it in an electric furnace, and does not emit carbon dioxide in the manufacturing process, as iron manufacturing does, using large amounts of coke.
Features of Basalt fiber（Basalt rock fiber）
- Continuous high tensile strength
The tensile strength of Basalt fibers is higher than that of steel fibers, aramid fibers, boron fibers, PBI fibers and alumina fibers, and is equivalent to that of S-glass fibers.
- Excellent acid and alkali resistance
The acid and alkali resistance of Basalt fibers is superior to that of aluminum borosilicate fibers.
- High heat resistance stability
The heat resistance of Basalt fibers is significantly better than that of glass, aramid, or carbon fibers, allowing continuous operation in the range -260℃ to 650℃. Furthermore, it can be combined with many other components to form even more heat-resistant materials.
- Low moisture absorption rate
The moisture absorption of Basalt fibers is one-sixth to one-eighth that of glass fibers.
- High insulation and high transmission of electron magnetic radiation
It has high insulating properties and high transmission of electron magnetic radiation; it can be used in the manufacture of electronic insulating materials for high voltage (250KV) and constant voltage (500V) equipment.
- Excellent strengthening effects and compatibility as a reinforcement for composite materials
It is compatible with plastics, metals, and concrete, allowing the development of composite materials with new properties. Single fiber stretching tests have demonstrated that the binding capacity of Basalt fibers to epoxy polymers is higher than that of E-Glass fibers, which increases the strength and therefore the quality when used in place of glass fibers.
- Environmentally friendly materials in line with the SDGs
As it is a natural material made from 100% basalt, it does not emit toxic gases or hazardous substances and is recyclable and environmentally friendly. Moreover, since it is made by melting in an electric furnace, no carbon dioxide is emitted in the production process of Basalt fiber, making it a completely eco-friendly material. It also does not damage furnaces during incineration, as glass fiber does.
- High insulation and sound insulation
It can be used as a highly efficient thermal insulator in low-temperature environments.
Comparative table of physical properties of Basalt fiber (1/3 specific gravity and 4 times tensile strength with steel)
|Properties||Basalt fiber||E glass fiber||S glass fiber||Polypropylene||Aramid Fiber||Carbon fiber||Copper Fiber|
|Tensile strength (MPa)||3200~3850||3100~3200||3200~4100||420||2900~3430||3500~6000||600~900|
|Coefficient of elasticity (Gpa)||93||72.50||86||3.50||70~140||230~430||250|
|Breaking elongation rate (%)||3.1||4.7||5.3||10||1.5~2.0||1.5~2.0||—|
|Softening temperature (℃)||1050||850||850||100||270||—||800|
|Operation temperature (℃)|
(Heat resistance temperature)
|Temporary temperature (℃)||1100||1000||950||120||500||800||950|
|Thermal conductivity coefficient||0.031~0.038||0.026~0.035|
|Sound absorption rate||0.9~0.99|
Applications and construction examples of Basalt fibers
Basalt fiber fireproof cloth, Fire retardant curtains, Firefighter’s uniform, protective equipment.
Highways, intercity roads, bridges, airport runways, ports, hydroelectric facilities, seismic and magnetometer stations, fire insulation inside and outside buildings, wind turbine blades.
Soot filters, car silencers, car exhaust filters, high-temperature blankets, corrosion-resistant winding tubes, air tanks, corrosion-resistant clean isolation.
Basalt Fiber Reinforced Plastics
Structural parts for cars and ships, interior materials, radomes, gun barrel heat shields, reinforced nylon, reinforced rubber, electronic printing, circuit boards, sports materials such as fishing rods and clubs.
Prices and quality of Basalt fibers we wholesale
|SiO2||51.6 ~ 59.3|
|Al2O3||14.6 ~ 18.3|
|CaO||5.9 ~ 9.4|
|MgO||3.0 ~ 5.3|
|Na2O+K2O||3.6 ~ 5.2|
|TiO2||0.8 ~ 2.25|
|Fe2O3+FeO||9.0 ~ 14.0|
|others||0.09 ~ 0.13|
1) The President and the Managing Director have a strong network in China, which enables them to distribute high quality Basalt fibers at lower prices than other companies.
2) We have tried many Basalt fibers from different countries, including those made in Japan, but the quality of Basalt fibres from China, which we deal in, was the best.
3) In addition to the range of Basalt fibers we offer, we can also process any knitting method according to customer requirements.
Basalt Cloth (basalt fiber)
Basalt cloth is woven with basalt fiber.
It can be woven in a variety of ways, such as plain weave, twill weave, and vermilion weave, depending on the customer’s needs.
Weight and thickness can also be changed depending on the application.
Basalt chopped strand mat
Basalt fibers are uniformly dispersed in a random direction and formed into a sheet using a binding agent.
Excellent choice for hand lay-up molding, filament wiping molding, and compression molding.
Basalt surface mat
It is a thin sheet of finely chopped basalt chopped fiber made by the paper manufacturing method.
It is used to improve the surface finish of the FRP (Fiber Reinforced Plastics) manufacturing process by hand layup molding or press molding, for example, to prevent the surface exposure of glass fiber or basalt fiber.
It is also ideal for manufacturing GRP pipes and storage tanks using the filament winding method.
Basalt needle mat
It is a material with very low thermal conductivity and guaranteed high heat insulation, heat retention, and sound insulation properties that can withstand continuous operation in a wide range of temperature environments from -260°C to over 900°C.
It is a semi-hard product made of high-strength basalt fiber with a coated surface.
It is a good material for reinforcing asphalt and concrete and is suitable for building all kinds of pavements, such as highways, as well as banks and hillsides. Mesh sizes include 5 mm x 5 mm, 10 mm x 10 mm, 25 mm x 25 mm, 40 mm x 40 mm, and 160 mm x 160 mm lattices, etc. Thickness and size can be changed according to customers’ requests and applications.
Basalt Grid is a lattice-like material made of basalt fibers reinforced with resin.
It has higher strength than Basalt mesh and is suitable for reinforcing concrete.
The mesh size is 50mm x 50mm, 100mm x 100mm, 150mm x 150mm, and the thickness is 1mm to 5mm.
Basalt rod is an advanced material that can replace rebar and glass reinforcement and has the complementary advantages of high ductility of rebar and high strength of FRP reinforcement material. There are two types.
(1) Basalt bars, which are reinforced with basalt fibers hardened with resin, are stronger than steel bars and have bending recovery characteristics that allow them to return to their original state without deformation even when subjected to strong loads that would cause steel bars to bend.
(2) Basalt rod material is also available, which is reinforced by wrapping Basalt fiber around the inner core rebar and hardening it with resin and is a low-cost product.
It is available in diameters from 4mm to 25mm, and the length can be cut according to the customer’s requirements.
Experimental movie of the bending recovery characteristics of basalt rods.
Experiments on bending recovery characteristics of basalt rods.
This video is a comparison experiment to see what happens when a rebar and basalt rod are bent.
Both rods are bent the same distance using a press.
The reinforcing bar remains bent when it is bent, but the basalt rod has a bending restoration property, so it returns to straightness as before even if it is bent.
Basalt rods are about one-quarter the weight of reinforcing steel bars and have four times the tensile strength of reinforcing steel bars, making them extremely strong and effective for earthquake-resistant reinforcement of buildings.
Basalt insulation board
Basalt insulation board is made from Basalt fiber short-staple fibers using a special process and has excellent heat retention and sound absorption properties, as well as high strength.
It is a fire-resistant insulating material that is ideal for exterior walls and wall cores.
Video of combustion experiment of material coated with solution of next generation FRP on Basalt solid board.
Combustion test of material coated with a solution of next-generation FRP on Basalt insulation.
Basalt fiber can be used continuously in temperatures ranging from -260℃ to 650℃. It is a material that is resistant to very low and high temperatures. Basalt solid board is made by solidifying Basalt fiber with adhesive, so when it is burned with a burner at 1200℃, the adhesive burns and smoke is generated.
In this video, we conduct a combustion test of a nonflammable material that is further insulated by coating Basalt Solid Board with a nonflammable next-generation FRP solution developed by our company.
Even after burning it with a burner at 1200℃ for 10 minutes, it does not burn at all and does not emit smoke. The back side did not reach more than 191℃ after 5 minutes. It is a very good heat insulator in that thinness.
Fire insulating panels
Fire insulating panels are non-combustible insulation materials that sandwich rock wool between basalt insulation boards to enhance the fire insulating effect. It has high tensile and compressive strength and has also five times more durability than organic insulation materials.
Basalt chopped strand
Basalt chopped strands are made of long fibers cut into lengths for specific applications.
It is coated with a focusing and binding agent to make it compatible with various materials and ingredients.
Dyeing basalt fiber is very difficult, but this is a prototype of basalt yarn that we dyed red at the customer’s request.
|Fiber diameter (μm)||Fiber density (tex)|
|Fiber diameter (μm)||Fiber density (tex)|